By: Dar Shahid Hussain
uicide is a deliberate act of self-harm with the intent of death. Depression, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, personality disorders, and anxiety disorders are all risk factors, as are sociopathic beliefs, physical ailments such as chronic fatigue syndrome, and substance addictions such as alcoholism and the use of and withdrawal from sedatives. There are occasions when it happens even when there is no psychiatric condition present, especially in settings that are unsustainable, such as intense or protracted grief or failing health. There are impulsive acts of suicide as well, such as financial or academic challenges, relationship issues (such as breakups), or harassment/bullying, that lead people to take extreme measures.
Suicide is the 15th leading source of death in the world, accounting for 1.4 percent of all fatalities. Suicide kills far more men than women. These suicide figures are almost certainly an underestimate of actual cases. Suicide deaths may go unnoticed or be misclassified as an accident or another cause of death. It is sometimes not reported because of its sensitive nature and the stigma that still surrounds it. Suicide attempts, or nonfatal suicidal conduct, are far more common, and are believed to be 10-20 times more common than actual suicide. Each year, 703000 estimated individuals commit suicide and every suicide is a tragedy that impacts families, towns, and whole countries, as well as the people who are left behind.
Approximately 0.5% to 1.4% of individuals die by suicide, which equates to a death rate of 11.6 per 100,000 people per year, and this number is steadily rising, especially in underdeveloped nations as compared to developed ones. Suicide methods differ from country to country, the most popular methods are hanging, chemical poisoning, and using firearms. Some of these discrepancies might be attributed to the fact that there are a variety of approaches available. A survey of 56 nations revealed that hanging was the most prevalent form of suicide in most countries.
Many young lives are lost as a result of the societal-wide disruption of psychological and socioeconomic repercussions. Suicide among young people is a major public health concern that must be addressed with effective preventative strategies. Because of this, learning as much as possible about the risk factors that contribute to suicide behavior in children is critical. Especially throughout the adolescent years, which are predisposed to mental health difficulties by nature. This stage of life is marked by a lot of mobility and changes from one state to another, all at the same time. In addition, the adolescents are frequently confronted with high expectations, sometimes too high, from pertinent relatives and peers. These situations inevitably lead to feelings of helplessness, insecurity, stress, and a loss of control. In order to deal with these challenges and successfully cope with these emotions, adolescents need access to significant supporting resources.
The probability of suicide can be reduced by restricting access to specific means, for example, firearms or poisons like opioids and pesticides. Because suicide is typically an impulsive choice — up to 70% of near-fatal suicide attempts are undertaken within less than an hour of thought – limiting access to readily available suicide techniques may make impulsive attempts less likely to succeed.. It’s possible that treatment for drug and alcohol addiction, depression, and suicide attempts can be beneficial as well. Cognitive behavioural therapy appears to help young people who have recently considered suicide. Studies on the impact of school-based initiatives to improve mental health literacy and train school employees on suicide rates have had conflicting findings. Suicide rates may be reduced if economic growth can lessen poverty. In the case of older men, efforts to improve social interaction may be helpful. Preventing early trauma offers too a window of opportunity for suicide prevention.
Because of the stigma attached to mental illnesses and suicide, many persons contemplating suicide or who have made an attempt on their own life do not seek treatment. As a result, they do not receive the care they require. Its prevention has not been effectively addressed either due to a lack of public awareness of suicide as a serious public health concern and the reluctance of many countries to publicly discuss it. Only 38 nations have reported having a national suicide prevention plan, and only a few countries have made suicide prevention one of their health priority. It is critical for countries to achieve success in suicide prevention through raising community awareness and breaking down social taboos.
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